Tractatus theologico politicus
Henricum KŁnraht, Hamburg, 1670
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
The Tractatus was Spinoza's pointed criticism of religious intolerance, as well as a systematic attack on Judaism. He was excommunicated from his Jewish congregation (largely on account of his heretical views - that Jews were not a Chosen People, that the Bible was not the product of God's revelation to Moses and the prophets - and his association with political and economic radicals). When Spinoza did not repent upon the imposition of a temporary ban, he was promptly subjected to total excommunication. His response was perfectly befitting a pragmatic philosopher. "All the better," he declared. "They do not force me to do anything that I would not have done of my own accord if I did not dread scandal."
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